Maps

Current Maps held by TADS

Historical map websites

Historical maps

Other sources

  • Hampshire Tithe Maps –The History of Maps
    • Tithe Maps The first tithes can be traced back to the 9th century and King Ethelwulf of Wessex. A tithe was an ‘in kind’ payment made to the local church, typically 10% of an individual’s produce.  As this was typically stock or crop, great tithe barns were built by local monasteries or churches in which to collect tithes within the parish; many of these barns still survive around the county today.
      In 1836 the Tithe Commutation Act made it possible to pay tithes in cash, equivalent to 10% of an individual’s produce. This legislation required that detailed maps be drawn up on order to identify land ownership and use within the parish. Each map was supported by a  document called the tithe apportionment, which detailed the owners, the nature of the land they possessed and the rent charges they were liable to pay. Three copies of each map were made. The first was held by the tithe commissioners and later passed to the Inland Revenue. These copies are now in the care of the National Archives. The
      second would be kept in the diocesan registry and the third in the local parish church. More often than not it is the diocesan copy that passed to HRO. Almost the entire county is represented in the HRO – only five parishes are without tithe maps. Although they were drawn up to depict private land ownership rather than highways, tithe maps give us a very good idea of road and track networks in the parish in the early 19th century. These are usually depicted as physical features and don’t always indicate whether or not routes were public or private, or byways or bridleways. However, sometimes they may
      inadvertently show routes that were considered public on account of the fact that they aren’t privately owned.
    • Enclosure Maps
      The process of enclosing England’s field systems  was not an overnight one; many parts of the countryside were enclosed hundreds of years before others. This was often done by private arrangement or legal agreement and it wasn’t until the 1801 Inclosure Act and the 1845 General Act that the process became formalised. Under these acts, commissioners allotted land to
      individual landowners. Maps and awards were created to detail the changes, and these documents often provide excellent information about land use. Unfortunately, as many parishes had already been enclosed by private agreement before the act, often no formal maps exist.  However, where they exist they provide an important record and carry the most evidential weight when identifying lost routes, as they were drawn up as a legal record of publichighways as well as land ownership. The traditional spelling was Inclosure, but as you are no doubt aware, Enclosure has become a more popular variation. The Record Office primarily uses Enclosure, so that spelling will be used for the rest of this guide. That said, if a computer search of their catalogue doesn’t turn much up, consider trying both spellings.
    • Highway Handover Maps
      In 1929 the responsibility for county highways was passed from district and borough councils to the county council. For the purposes of the transfer, public highway ‘handover’ maps were drawn up to identify all of the public highways within the county. These were based on existing OS maps and supposedly edited to mark public highways – from
       A-roads to footpaths. However, these maps suffer from several flaws – most particularly that often, if a right of way was not surfaced, it was often not recorded. A right of way marked on these maps is very good evidence, but many public highways that existed both before and after the handover are not marked either. Also, this document did not have the benefit of any sort of public consultation or scrutiny so may be said to carry less  evidential weight than others.
    • Ordnance Survey
      It’s often forgotten that the first OS maps were drawn up for military purposes (a fact reflected in the name – ordnance being another word for ammunition). After successfully mapping the Scottish Highlands in order to organise the subjection of the clans there, the Board of Ordnance (now the MoD) began a full survey of the country. The very first OS map, covering Kent at a scale of 1 inch to 1 mile, was produced in 1801. However it would be more than half a century before the rest of the British Isles were complete. The new Ordnance Survey was based in the Tower of London until a fire forced them to relocate. In 1841 they moved into the old cavalry barracks on London Road in Southampton where they remained until German bombing during the Second World War forced the offices to disperse. In 1969 they returned to Southampton in the purpose built headquarters in Shirley and in 2010 they began moving to new offices on the city’s outskirts near the M271. A more thorough history of their work is available on their website.

Other unlinked maps

      • 1535-43. John Leland’s observations about Hampshire made on his itinerary 
      • 1607 ?  William Camden’s descriptive text for Hampshire from Britannia, translation by Holland 1610.
      • 1724-26 Extracts about Hampshire from Daniel Defoe’s guidebook a Tour through the Whole of Great Britain .
      • 1738 Thomas Cox’s descriptive text about Hampshire from Magna Britannia, Antiqua et Nova, about .
      • 1815 Entries for Hampshire from Richard Brookes’s General Gazetteer, 16th edition .
      • 1815 Hampshire parts of route descriptions from John Cary’s New Itinerary, 6th edition .
      • 1830 Extracts about Hampshire from William Cobbett’s Rural Rides, .